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Antony's enlargement of the Ptolemaic realm by relinquishing directly controlled Roman territory was exploited by his rival Octavian, who tapped into the public sentiment in Rome against the empowerment of a foreign queen at the expense of their Republic.
Antony's Parthian campaign in 36 BC turned into a complete debacle for a number of reasons, in particular the betrayal of Artavasdes II of Armenia , who defected to the Parthian side.
As Antony prepared for another Parthian expedition in 35 BC, this time aimed at their ally Armenia , Octavia traveled to Athens with 2, troops in alleged support of Antony, but most likely in a scheme devised by Octavian to embarrass him for his military losses.
Dellius was sent as Antony's envoy to Artavasdes II in 34 BC to negotiate a potential marriage alliance that would wed the Armenian king's daughter to Alexander Helios, the son of Antony and Cleopatra.
In an event held at the gymnasium soon after the triumph, Cleopatra dressed as Isis and declared that she was the Queen of Kings with her son Caesarion, King of Kings , while Alexander Helios was declared king of Armenia, Media , and Parthia, and two-year-old Ptolemy Philadelphos was declared king of Syria and Cilicia.
Octavian wanted to publicize it for propaganda purposes, but the two consuls, both supporters of Antony, had it censored from public view.
In late 34 BC, Antony and Octavian engaged in a heated war of propaganda that would last for years. A papyrus document dated to February 33 BC, later used to wrap a mummy , contains the signature of Cleopatra, probably written by an official authorized to sign for her.
Antony and Cleopatra traveled together to Ephesus in 32 BC, where she provided him with of the naval ships he was able to acquire.
During the spring of 32 BC Antony and Cleopatra traveled to Athens, where she persuaded Antony to send Octavia an official declaration of divorce.
Antony and Cleopatra had a larger fleet than Octavian, but the crews of Antony and Cleopatra's navy were not all well-trained, some of them perhaps from merchant vessels, whereas Octavian had a fully professional force.
Cleopatra and Antony had the support of various allied kings, but Cleopatra had already been in conflict with Herod, and an earthquake in Judea provided him with an excuse to be absent from the campaign.
Lucius Pinarius , Mark Antony's appointed governor of Cyrene, received word that Octavian had won the Battle of Actium before Antony's messengers could arrive at his court.
Cleopatra perhaps started to view Antony as a liability by the late summer of 31 BC, when she prepared to leave Egypt to her son Caesarion.
Cleopatra had Caesarion enter into the ranks of the ephebi , which, along with reliefs on a stele from Koptos dated 21 September 31 BC, demonstrated that Cleopatra was now grooming her son to become the sole ruler of Egypt.
After lengthy negotiations that ultimately produced no results, Octavian set out to invade Egypt in the spring of 30 BC,  stopping at Ptolemais in Phoenicia , where his new ally Herod provided his army with fresh supplies.
Octavian entered Alexandria, occupied the palace, and seized Cleopatra's three youngest children. Cleopatra decided in her last moments to send Caesarion away to Upper Egypt, perhaps with plans to flee to Kushite Nubia , Ethiopia, or India.
Following the tradition of Macedonian rulers , Cleopatra ruled Egypt and other territories such as Cyprus as an absolute monarch , serving as the sole lawgiver of her kingdom.
Although almost 50 ancient works of Roman historiography mention Cleopatra, these often include only terse accounts of the Battle of Actium, her suicide, and Augustan propaganda about her personal deficiencies.
Cleopatra is barely mentioned in De Bello Alexandrino , the memoirs of an unknown staff officer who served under Caesar.
Cleopatra's gender has perhaps led to her depiction as a minor if not insignificant figure in ancient, medieval, and even modern historiography about ancient Egypt and the Greco-Roman world.
Cleopatra was depicted in various ancient works of art, in the Egyptian as well as Hellenistic-Greek and Roman styles.
For instance, a large gilded bronze statue of Cleopatra once existed inside the Temple of Venus Genetrix in Rome, the first time that a living person had their statue placed next to that of a deity in a Roman temple.
Since the s scholars have debated whether or not the Esquiline Venus —discovered in on the Esquiline Hill in Rome and housed in the Palazzo dei Conservatori of the Capitoline Museums —is a depiction of Cleopatra, based on the statue's hairstyle and facial features , apparent royal diadem worn over the head, and the uraeus Egyptian cobra wrapped around the base.
Surviving coinage of Cleopatra's reign include specimens from every regnal year, from 51 to 30 BC.
The inscriptions on the coins are written in Greek, but also in the nominative case of Roman coins rather than the genitive case of Greek coins, in addition to having the letters placed in a circular fashion along the edges of the coin instead of across it horizontally or vertically as was customary for Greek ones.
Various coins, such as a silver tetradrachm minted sometime after Cleopatra's marriage with Antony in 37 BC, depict her wearing a royal diadem and a 'melon' hairstyle.
Of the surviving Greco-Roman-style busts and heads of Cleopatra, [note 66] the sculpture known as the " Berlin Cleopatra ", located in the Antikensammlung Berlin collection at the Altes Museum, possesses her full nose, whereas the head known as the " Vatican Cleopatra ", located in the Vatican Museums, is damaged with a missing nose.
Other possible sculpted depictions of Cleopatra include one in the British Museum , London, made of limestone, which perhaps only depicts a woman in her entourage during her trip to Rome.
Roller speculates that the British Museum head, along with those in the Egyptian Museum , Cairo, the Capitoline Museums, and in the private collection of Maurice Nahmen, while having similar facial features and hairstyles as the Berlin portrait but lacking a royal diadem, most likely represent members of the royal court or even Roman women imitating Cleopatra's popular hairstyle.
Cleopatra, mid-1st century BC, with a "melon" hairstyle and Hellenistic royal diadem worn over her head, now in the Vatican Museums   .
Cleopatra, mid-1st century BC, showing Cleopatra with a "melon" hairstyle and Hellenistic royal diadem worn over the head, now in the Altes Museum   .
Another painting from Pompeii , dated to the early 1st century AD and located in the House of Giuseppe II, contains a possible depiction of Cleopatra with her son Caesarion, both wearing royal diadems while she reclines and consumes poison in an act of suicide.
In a now lost encaustic painting was discovered in the Temple of Serapis at Hadrian's Villa , near Tivoli, Lazio , Italy, that depicted Cleopatra committing suicide with an asp biting her bare chest.
The Portland Vase , a Roman cameo glass vase dated to the Augustan period and now in the British Museum, includes a possible depiction of Cleopatra with Antony.
In modern times Cleopatra has become an icon of popular culture ,  a reputation shaped by theatrical representations dating back to the Renaissance as well as paintings and films.
Cleopatra appeared in miniatures for illuminated manuscripts , such as a depiction of her and Antony lying in a Gothic-style tomb by the Boucicaut Master in In the performing arts , the death of Elizabeth I of England in , and the German publication in of alleged letters of Cleopatra, inspired Samuel Daniel to alter and republish his play Cleopatra in In Victorian Britain , Cleopatra was highly associated with many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture and her image was used to market various household products, including oil lamps, lithographs , postcards and cigarettes.
Burnand 's Antony and Cleopatra offered satirical depictions of the queen connecting her and the environment she lived in with the modern age.
Whereas myths about Cleopatra persist in popular media, important aspects of her career go largely unnoticed, such as her command of naval forces, administrative acts, and publications on ancient Greek medicine.
Rowland, who highlights that the "Berenice called Cleopatra" cited by the 3rd- or 4th-century female Roman physician Metrodora was likely conflated by medieval scholars as referring to Cleopatra.
Cleopatra belonged to the Macedonian Greek dynasty of the Ptolemies ,    [note 76] their European origins tracing back to northern Greece.
Cleopatra I Syra was the only member of the Ptolemaic dynasty known for certain to have introduced some non-Greek ancestry, being a descendant of Apama , the Sogdian Iranian wife of Seleucus I.
Roller speculates that Cleopatra could have been the daughter of a theoretical half-Macedonian-Greek, half-Egyptian woman from Memphis in northern Egypt belonging to a family of priests dedicated to Ptah a hypothesis not generally accepted in scholarship , [note 84] but contends that whatever Cleopatra's ancestry, she valued her Greek Ptolemaic heritage the most.
Claims that Cleopatra was an illegitimate child never appeared in Roman propaganda against her. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Last active pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt. For other uses, see Cleopatra disambiguation. Unlocated tomb probably in Egypt. Main article: Early life of Cleopatra.
Further information: First Triumvirate. Main articles: Early life of Cleopatra and Reign of Cleopatra. Left: Cleopatra dressed as a pharaoh and presenting offerings to the goddess Isis , on a limestone stele dedicated by a Greek man named Onnophris, dated 51 BC, and located in the Louvre , Paris.
Main article: Reign of Cleopatra. Further information: Liberators' civil war. Main articles: Donations of Alexandria and Reign of Cleopatra.
Main articles: Battle of Actium and Reign of Cleopatra. Main article: Death of Cleopatra. Further information: Ptolemaic coinage and Ancient Greek coinage.
Further information: Roman historiography , Greek historiography , Latin literature , and Latin poetry.
Further information: List of cultural depictions of Cleopatra. Further information: Ptolemaic coinage , Roman currency , and Ancient Greek coinage.
An ancient Roman portrait head , c. A steel engraving published by John Sartain in left depicting the now lost painted death portrait of Cleopatra, an encaustic painting discovered in in the ancient Roman ruins of the Egyptian temple of Serapis at Hadrian's Villa in Tivoli, Lazio ;  she is seen here wearing the knotted garment of Isis corresponding with Plutarch 's description of her wearing the robes of Isis ,  as well as the radiant crown of the Ptolemaic rulers such as Ptolemy V pictured to the right in a golden octodrachm minted in — BC.
Cleopatra VII ruled ancient Egypt as co-regent first with her father, then with her two younger brothers and finally with her son for almost three decades.
She was part of a dynasty of Macedonian rulers founded by Ptolemy, who served as general under Alexander the Great during his conquest of Egypt in B.
Well-educated and clever, Cleopatra could speak various languages and served as the dominant ruler in all three of her co-regencies.
Her romantic liaisons and military alliances with the Roman leaders Julius Caesar and Mark Antony, as well as her supposed exotic beauty and powers of seduction, earned her an enduring place in history and popular myth.
Much of what is known about her life comes from the work of Greco-Roman scholars, particularly Plutarch. Born in 70 or 69 B. In 51 B. For his part, Caesar needed to fund his own return to power in Rome , and needed Egypt to repay the debts incurred by Auletes.
Entering Alexandria as an unpopular conqueror, Caesar restored the throne to the equally unpopular Cleopatra and her younger brother Ptolemy XIV then 13 years old.
Caesar remained in Egypt with Cleopatra for a time, and around 47 B. Sometime in B. After Caesar was murdered in March 44 B.
By this point, Cleopatra had strongly identified herself with the goddess Isis, the sister-wife of Osiris and mother of Horus.
This was consistent with the ancient Egyptian tradition of associating royalty with divinity in order to reinforce the position of kings and queens.
Still, unreliable flooding of the Nile resulted in failing crops, leading to inflation and hunger. Both sides asked for Egyptian support, and after some stalling Cleopatra sent four Roman legions stationed in Egypt by Caesar to support the triumvirate.
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